Fingers are that part of animal body that aids in holding things. Fingers also aid the humans to work and earn their livelihood. Fingers are very significant body parts. In general the human body have in total 20 fingers. Usually there are 5 fingers on each of the two hands and five fingers on each of the two feet. However there are exceptions and then we find a human as well as an animal have more than 20 fingers. There are occasions when a human has about 21, 22, 23 or 24 fingers. This can be explained biologically. However, in most cases it is observed that humans prefer to get extra fingers operated by means of a simple and painless operation procedure which aids them in getting rid of their cause of embarrassments.
With fingers it is possible for animals including humans to manipulate and sense things. The bones on which the fingers rest are referred to as phalanges. There are normally 5 phalanges on each limb of a normal human being. The finger on each phalange is also known as digit. The first digit is known as thumb. It is followed by index finger, middle finger, ring finger and little finger.
In total there are 14 phalanges or digital bones in a human body. The fingers at their tip have the nails. The nails are usually formed of calcium deposits. Finger pulp is referred to the fleshy mass that is present on the extremity of the finger.
The fingers are connected with each other by means of muscles. The muscles aid in finger movement in space and time. Fingers can be flexed, extended, abducted and adducted. Out of these four, flexion is considered as the strongest movement. Two large muscles are the primary cause of flexion of each finger. Additional muscles aid in augmenting the movement. Finger movement is usually independent of each other. But the muscles and tendons are so interconnected that they prevent the overall free movement of the fingers.
Fingers have fewer muscles and the muscles are only present in the palm and the forearm. Finger muscles can be categorised as extrinsic and intrinsic muscles. There are primarily two types of flexors that are located just beneath the forearm. With the help of the flexors it is possible to bend the fingers. The thumb too has a long and a short flexor. The thumb flexors allow the thumb motion in opposite directions thereby aiding in the bending and grasping process.
The finger tips have the largest concentration of touch receptors as well as thermo receptors. Thus this portion of the body is highly sensitive to temperature, pressure, moisture, vibration and texture.
Fingertips wrinkling in water are a very common phenomenon. It was initially perceived that this is mainly because of skin swelling in water but later it was understood that this is mainly due to the constriction of blood vessels because of the signalling of the sympathetic nervous system when fingers are immersed in water. The advantage of these wrinkles in wet conditions is to have a good grasp of objects when wet. In wet there is always a tendency for objects to be slippery. Therefore, the human body is so adapted under wet conditions that it is possible to have a firm grip of wet objects with the aid of wrinkled finger tips.
Fingers are well connected to the cerebral cortex of the human brain. Each finger sends and receives signals from the soma to sensory cortex area, the supplementary motor area and the primary motor area of the human brain.
As discussed often people are seen to possess a club hand of webbed and shortened fingers. This is a typical case when fingers of the hand appear to be fused. The only remedy is surgery and through surgery it is possible to separate the fingers so that the person can make a useful use of his or her hands. There are sometimes situations when limbs including fingers get amputated and then it becomes extremely difficult for that concerned person to lead a healthy life. This clearly aids us to believe that the fingers are the most important parts of the human body. Their presence makes us active and complete.